Mail by Carrier Pigeon


Using Pigeons to Deliver Mail During the 1870 Siege of Paris In 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, Paris was besieged by Prussian forces and cut off from what remained of unoccupied France. In an effort to maintain communications between the capital and the rest of the country, France established an innovative system of ail delivery that made use of the latest technology of the time. A balloon...

The Christmas Shoe


The Story of an Ancient French Christmas Tradition Christmas Traditions – The Christmas Shoe This account, taken from the original French in a book entitled La Nuit de Noel Dans Tous les Pays (Christmas Eve in All Countries), recounts the charming old Christmas tradition of filling a large shoe (instead of a Christmas stocking) with presents for a child. This traditional French custom...



EMPEDOCLES (494–443 BC) The Death of Empedocles – in the Style of Salvator Rosa, created using the NightCafe Art AI. See more artwork here: The SUPPOSED GOD No one knows what his birth was, or how he came to earth. He appeared near the golden banks of the river Acragas, in the beautiful city of Agrigento, a little after the time when Xerxes struck the sea with chains. Tradition only records...

Reforms in the Ottoman Empire


This article is about the the reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire prior to World War 1 in an effort to save the empire. The Tanzimat (Turkish-Ottoman ???????), which means reorganization was a period of reforms that began in 1839 and ended in 1876. The tanzimat characterized as a way to modernize the Ottoman Empire, to ensure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements and...



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