Reforms in the Ottoman Empire

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This article is about the the reforms carried out by the Ottoman Empire prior to World War 1 in an effort to save the empire.

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The Tanzimat (Turkish-Ottoman ???????), which means reorganization was a period of reforms that began in 1839 and ended in 1876. The tanzimat characterized as a way to modernize the Ottoman Empire, to ensure its territorial integrity against nationalist movements and forces that might threaten the state. The reforms encouraged by the Ottoman Empire against various ethnic groups of the Empire allowed the rise of a nationalist movement rule. The reforms enabled the integration of non-Muslims and non-Turks to a greater extent in Ottoman society, asserting in a more civil liberties and ensuring its equalidade within the Empire. The Ottoman Empire was known as “the sick man of Europe” since the 1830s. When the Ottoman political order could have been compared as “progressive compared to medieval Europe” in the context of the nineteenth century, which acted against the principle of equality introduced by the French Revolution. [edit] Origins

The reformism of the Tanzimat emerged from the ideas of the sultans Mahmud II and Abdülmecid and I also prominent reformist bureaucrats educated in European molds such as Ali Pasha, Fuad Pasha, Ahmed Cevdet Pasha and Midhat Pasha. They recognized the invalidity of the old religious and military organizations in a modern world. Most of the symbolic changes, such as uniforms, were targeted in order to change the world view of imperial administrators. Many of the reforms were attempts to adopt successful European practices. Measures such as conscripção universal education reforms, institutional and legal, and systematic efforts against corruption. [edit] Objectives

The ambitious project was launched to combat the slow decline of the empire that had seen its borders shrink, and grew in a less expressive than the rest of the European powers. [edit] Reforms

It began under Sultan Mahmud II. On November 3, 1839, Sultan Abdülmecid launched the Organic Statute of General Hatt-? S,erif of Gülhane (imperial garden where he had proclaimed for the first time). It is also called the Tanzimat Ferman?. In this very important document, the Sultan ordered that he wished to bring the benefits of good administration to the provinces of the Ottoman Empire through new institutions, institutions abroad and those referred primarily to:

* Ensure the Ottoman Empire the perfect security of their lives,

honor and property.

* Introduction of the first bank statements Ottomans (1840). * Reorganization of the army through the convening regular

raising the army and setting time in the military (1843-1844).

* Adoption of a national anthem and national flag Ottoman (1844). * Reoorganização the financial system according to the model

french.

* Reoorganização the civil code and criminal according to the model

french.

* Should set the Meclis Maarif-i-i Umumiye (1845), the

first prototype of the Ottoman Parliament.

* Establishment of a public board of education (1846). * The establishment of modern universities and academies (1848). * No need to capture rate on non-Muslims, with the

estabelcimento of a regular system of taxation (1856).

* No Muslims allowed to become soldiers (1856). * Many provisions for better management of public

and advancing trade

* Construction of railways. * Replacement of guilds and factories. * The first stock exchange was established in Istanbul (1866).

The edict was followed by the Hatt-? Humayun of 1856 aa that promoted equality for all citizens of all religions, and the National Law of 1869 which created a common citizenship for all the Ottomans, without distinction of religion or ethnic origin. Contribute a better translation

Automatically Translated from the Portuguese: Tanzimat using Google’s Language Tool. All text is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Creative Commons License Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 license.

By Translator Mike

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